Coal Creation

I love asking questions. I usually enjoy answering questions, too, especially when they come from kids and other people who are just curious and really want to learn and understand. Of course, a lot of times, I don’t know the answers, but that just means it’s the perfect time for me to learn as well.  I hear a lot of questions almost every day with my work in creation science – some from people who really want to learn, some come from people who are just angry and hurt. Recently someone asked a question that went something like this “If the earth is only thousands of years old, how did dinosaur bones turn into coal and oil?” After reading this question, I realized that a lot of people really don’t know what coal and oil are made of and how they are formed. In this article, we will talk about coal, and next time, we will talk about oil and natural gas.

First, let’s do some “myth busting”. Here are three common myths about coal:

  1. Fossil fuels – coal, oil, and natural gas – come from dinosaur bones
  2. It takes long periods of time (millions of years) to make coal
  3. Diamonds are made of pressurized coal (learn about the origin of diamonds here)

Dinosaur – from

Without a doubt, coal is made of plant material – not dinosaurs. If you look through coal deposits, you will find lots of plant fossils. Where in the world did people come up with the idea that coal came from dinosaurs? Maybe because people automatically think “dinosaurs” any time they hear the word, “fossil”. But, there is so much more to fossils than just dinosaurs! Coal can be found in many different layers, or coal seems, around the world.  It can be found in layers below the rocks that contain dinosaur bones, in rock layers alongside dinosaurs, and in layers above them.  The most popular rock unit to find coal in is the carboniferous group, made up of the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian units (more about rock units and the order of the rock layers here).

Coalification is a type of fossilization. In traditional fossilization, minerals replace bone, turning it into stone. Turning plant material into coal is similar. The basic ingredients to make coal are: 1) plant material, 2) heat, and 3) pressure. Scientists have also found that chemicals in clay found with coal actually speeds up the process. Many people would tell you that coal forms slowly over long periods of time, as plant material in a swamp slowly gets covered by mud when the ocean rises to cover the swamp. However, there are a number of problems with this model. First, we don’t see anything like this happening today. The peat (mushed plant material) that makes up coal in the fossil record looks different than peat does in swamps today. Today, we can observe that peat in modern-day swamps looks different from peat that was made by catastrophic transport, like in a modern hurricane. The grain sizes and the way debris is spread around in fossil coal matches catastrophic transport peat much better than swamp peat.  If coal layers really did form slowly in a swamp, there would have to be other swamps on top of the first layers to create the next ones. But, tree roots from the swamps above would mess up the layer of coal below it.


The global flood, mentioned in the Bible, offers a much better model for coal formation than the ancient swamp explanation and actually fits better with what we see happening today. In this model, the violent flood waters would have gathered many different types of plants, turning them into peat. We see lots of different plant fossils in coal – including plants that don’t live in swamps. The peat would be deposited between layers of mud, where it would get the right amounts of heat and pressure, thanks to the mud layers on top of it and other flood factors. This flood model for coal is a “catastrophic transport” model, in which the plant material was transported away from where the plants grew and buried quickly.

Swamp. From

There have been other “catastrophic transport” models like this for coal formation in the past. These “catastrophic transport” models are not very popular because many people think that the plant material grew and coalified in the same place.  They point to evidence of “fossilized forests” – we do find upright fossil trees going through coal layers with roots in “ancient soil” buried underneath coal layers. But, a closer look at this fossil evidence shows more support to the idea of catastrophic transport – that the plant material was transported away from where it grew before it turned to coal. The roots of some of these fossil trees (lycopods) are hollow and broken. The rock inside these roots is made of different chemicals from the rock around the roots – if these tree roots grew in this soil, we would expect basically the same type of dirt inside and outside the roots.

Mount Saint Helens – from Wikimedia Commons

Also, trees don’t stay upright and unfossilized for thousands of years while they wait to get covered with the next layer of rock –  they would break off long before then! We have seen broken trees standing upright underwater at Spirit Lake next to Mount Saint Helens. Catastrophic, quick transport & burial better matches the evidence. Some people say that it would take longer than the few thousand years before the flood to grow all the vegetation on earth to make as much coal as we find. But, they are just guessing that the climate and growth rates we see today on earth have been the same in the past. The world before the flood was much more lush and tropical. With one big landmass – a super-continent instead of smaller broken continents like we have today – there may have been a lot more area for growth.

It doesn’t take millions of years to form coal – just the right conditions. Coal has been made in labs many times, taking days or weeks. Making coal (or any fossil) is all about conditions. Different conditions make slightly different types of coal. Coal starts out as peat, and the hotter the temperature, the “better” the coal.  Made at the lowest coal-forming temperatures, lignite (spelled with an “L”) is the least pure type of coal, containing 60-70% carbon. Next in line is the common bituminous coal. The best type of coal for burning is anthracite that contains 92-98% carbon, formed at the highest coal-forming temperatures. If it gets too hot, the coal will turn into graphite, like a common pencil “lead”.

Hopefully, you now have a better understanding of what coal is and how it was made. Next time, we will explore how oil and natural gas are formed. Realizing that the global flood formed coal and other fossil fuels puts things into perspective.  Think about it – coal has been an extremely important part of history. It has helped provide necessary warmth for countless people over the years. Yet, it was formed by a disastrous global flood that destroyed almost everything on the earth.  The flood was part of God’s righteous judgment – a good judge doesn’t let criminals go without just punishment. But, through the judgement and destruction, we can also see the amazing signs of His mercy and grace. He took destruction and turned it into something useful, beautiful, and even life saving – He used the flood to make coal

To console those who mourn in Zion, to give them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they may be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that He may be glorified ~ Isaiah 61:3


  • Marshark, Stephen. Earth: Portrait of a Planet. , Third Edition. 2008. Section 14.7. Coal: Energy from the Swamps of the Past. Pg 500-509. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Snelling, Andrew. Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation, & The Flood. Volume 2. Chapters 70, 71,85, 119, 120. Pages 549-68,584-86, 675-81, 953-63. 2009. Third printing, October 2014. Answers in Genesis. Master Books. New Leaf Publishing Group. Green Forest, Arkansas, USA.
  • Morris, John. 2011. On the Origin of Coal. Acts & Facts. 40 (6): 18. Institute for Creation Research. Last accessed 10-6-2017.
  • Morris, John. 2003. Did Modern Coal Seams Form in a Peat Swamp? Acts & Facts. 32 (8). Institute for Creation Research. Last accessed 10-6-2017.
  • Morris, Henry M. Those Fossil Fuels. Evidence for Creation. Institute for Creation Research. Last accessed 10-6-2017.
  • Schönknecht, Gerhard. Too much coal for a young earth? Journal of Creation 11(3):278–282. December 1997. Creation Ministries International. Last accessed 10-6-2017.
  • King, Hobart. Coal:What Is Coal and How Does It Form? Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks. Last accessed 10-6-2017.

New Human Footprint Discovery?

Footprint in snow From

The late afternoon sun was beginning to sink. Waves lapped up onto the sandy beach, erasing footprints and leaving a perfectly smooth surface of wet sand. The newly smoothed sandy surface, just waiting to catch new footprints, reminded me of the peaceful feeling of finding a wide field of fresh new snow, without any footprints or marks yet. Whether you can relate better to the feelings of wet sand between bare toes as they make footprints along the beach, or the feeling of being the first person to make tracks through fresh snow, you make tracks either way. You make tracks that reflect who you are – big person, small person, bear, or kitten. You make tracks that show evidence of what you did and where you went.

Human footprint in the sand From

Baby feet Photo from

Fossil footprints can show evidence of where creatures went and what they did – if scientists can figure out who made the tracks, which is always a big challenge. Some interesting fossil prints that look an awful lot like human footprints were recently discovered on the island of Crete, Greece. Human footprints are unique from animal prints. We don’t make claw marks in our footprints and we make certain shapes that show our arches, heels, and the balls of our feet. Our toes are very unique – We have a big toe on the inside of each of our feet, and the toes get progressively smaller until you get to the pinky toe. As silly as it sounds, maybe one of the most memorable ways to picture this is with the old nursery rhyme: “This little piggy went to market, this little piggy stayed home, etc.” working from the biggest toes to the littlest ones. Many animals have toes that are all the same size. This progression of “big toes to little toes” was seen in these newly discovered fossil footprints and there were no claw marks.

Another unique thing about human toes is that our big toes face forward. Apes and chimpanzees have big toes, but their big toe points outward like our thumb, making their feet look a lot like our hands. These fossil footprints from Crete showed forward-facing big toes like our feet. They look a lot like normal human footprints. If they look so similar to humans, why don’t we just call them human footprints? Because of the rock layers they are found in, these footprints would be some of the oldest human fossil evidence and that presents a problem for the evolutionary view of how humans came into existence.

Gorilla foot, with outward-facing “big toe”
Photo from

At a supposed 5.7 million years old, found in Miocene group rock layers (more about rock layer groups & ages here), these footprints would never be considered human by the evolutionary camp. Forward-facing human-looking big toes were thought to be more advanced or more evolved than the thumb-like big toes of apes. This is sooner than they thought humans had forward-facing toes. Ardipithecus ramidus, or “Ardi” for short, was thought to be a missing link, but this fossil has side-facing toes like an ape, and is younger than these footprints. Many scientists are skeptical of “Ardi” anyway, but finding evidence of forward-facing human-like toes in rock layers this old is still a challenge for evolutionary thinking. These fossil footprints make it look like our ancestors’ feet must have looked a lot like modern human feet earlier than evolutionary thinking would first assume.

Human foot

Maybe our ancestors’ feet looked like modern humans because they were fully human all along. The Laetoli footprint fossils are some other old human-like footprints, discovered before the Crete discovery, and they also seem to look a lot like modern human feet.  Now, some people might say that the Crete footprints look more “primitive” than our feet – they have more narrow heels and less dramatic arches than we do. But, keep in mind the variety in humans we see today – different eye colors, height, facial features, sizes, skin colors, and much more. None of those variations are better or more “primitive” than others – they are just different and part of our individual uniqueness. Different nations and people group have cultural and physical differences. In the past, there were other people groups that may have looked different that you or me, but like our modern people groups, they were all still people, just like us. No better, no worse. If someone studied my footprints, they might be able to tell that I have relatively narrow heels and wide toe boxes and that I tend to walk around barefoot (partly because most shoes don’t fit comfortably – the heels slip and the toe boxes are too tight). I can’t help but wonder if people studying my fossil footprints might think that I must be some sort of primitive human, or perhaps some advanced form of human who walks differently and is continuing to evolve.

Island of Crete in Greece
Photo from Wikimedia commons

Another one of the big problems that these fossil footprints present for evolutionary thinking is that they were found on the island of Crete, Greece – in Europe – while most of the other oldest human-looking fossils have been found in Africa. Current thinking on human evolution says that humans evolved first in Africa and then spread, but these Greek fossils are older than most of the African human-looking fossils. In another very interesting find by an entirely different group, scientists discovered a jaw that had some similarities to human jaws, also found in Greece in similar rock units (same age according to evolutionary thinking). There’s still a lot of research that needs to be done on this fossil, and I can’t say that it is definitely human or not at this point, but it certainly is interesting that it was found close to these footprints. This is not a problem for the Biblical view of human origins. We believe that humans were created fully human from the beginning, and that after the global flood and Tower of Babel (see Genesis 11), the people spread across the earth. In this view, the layers seen in Crete, capturing these fossil footprints really aren’t that much older than the fossils in Africa.

So what’s the take-away? We have always been and always will be humans – uniquely made in the image of God. You are not an accident descendant from animals, but lovingly created by God as His child just a few thousand years ago, and new scientific discoveries continue to confirm this. May you always remember that you are fearfully & wonderfully made with purpose.


  • Uppsala University. (2017, August 31). Fossil footprints challenge established theories of human evolution. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 9-7-2017.
  • Gierliński, Gerard D. , Et al. Possible hominin footprints from the late Miocene (c. 5.7 Ma) of Crete? Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association. Available online 31 August 2017. Science In Press, Corrected Proof. Accessed 9-20-2017.
  • Levin, Harold. 2010. The Earth Through Time, 9th edition. Chapter 17: Human Origins.  Pg 538-61. John Wiley & Sons Inc. United States.
  • Wieland, Carl. Ardipithecus again. Published 10-04-2009. Creation Ministries International. Accessed 9-20-2017.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. Time’s alleged ‘ape-man’ trips up (again): Response to ‘One Giant Step for Mankind’Time magazine cover story, 23 July 2001. Journal of Creation 15(3):7–9. December 2001. Creation Ministries International. Accessed 9-20-2017.
  • Williams, Alexander R. ‘Oldest’ hominid footprints show no evolution! Creation Magazine. 15(4):32. September 1993. Creation Ministries International. Accessed 9-20-2017.
  • Thomas, Brian. Laetoli Footprints Out of Step with Evolution. Article posted on August 11, 2011. Instititue for Creation Research. Accessed 9-20-2017.
  • University of Toronto. (2017, May 23). 7.2-million-year-old pre-human remains found in the Balkans: New hypothesis about the origin of humankind suggests oldest hominin lived in Europe.  ScienceDaily. Retrieved 9-19- 2017.
  • Thomas, Brian. Did Humans Evolve from ‘Ardi’? . Article posted on 10-6-2009. Institute for Creation Reserearch. Retrieved 9-20-2017.


The Human Immune System – Purpose

Triceratops – “Monoclonius” dinosuar would look similar to this. Photo from

What is wrong with me? I thought as I caught a glimpse of my pale face and the dark bags under my eyes in the mirror. I was getting tons of sleep, but still felt exhausted and struggling to do basic tasks. Things just got worse, so I eventually went to the doctor (usually a last-resort for me). After a weekend of taking antibiotics that did absolutely no good, I went back to the doctor who tested blood and told me that I have “mononucleosis”. Unfortunately, she did not mean that I had a genuine “Monoclonius” fossil – a dinosaur type similar to Triceratops, originally named by one of the founders of North American paleontology, Edward Cope, but that has since been mostly proven to be merely babies of other types of dinosaurs (learn more about Cope and the infamous bone wars here).

There is no medicine or treatment for “mono”, also called the “kissing disease”. All that can be done is to let the human immune system do its job.  Of course, anything that lightens the load on the immune system helps – sleeping, drinking lots of water, taking vitamin C, etc. In our modern American culture, our minds tend to go straight for medicines when we get sick, but the human immune system on its own is an incredible thing. Our bodies were designed to defend, fix, and maintain themselves. Isn’t that an amazing thought? The human body uses many different defense mechanisms and organs on multiple levels –  Skin, red and white blood cells, mucus, the lymphatic system, and others are all part of the immune system.

Witnessing my own immune system working overtime every day for months (and continuing to work), two questions stuck in my mind:

  1. Why did our Creator, God give us immune systems if He created a perfect world (see Genesis 1:31)?
  2. Why is the human immune system flawed, if God created it perfect? Some people’s immune systems do not do their job right, or grow weak and fail them. Other people’s immune systems attack their own body, causing lots of problems. Either of these could result in serious sickness or death.

Digging into the first question, the simplest answer could just be that God created the immune system because He knew we would need it later. He knew ahead of time that Adam and Eve would choose to rebel against Him, bringing pain, sickness, and death into the world. We don’t know what the world God originally created was like – we were not there to observe it, so all we know is what is written down in the history of the Bible.  But we do know that, even today, defending against disease is not the only purpose of the immune system.

Border Collies are often used as sheepdogs

Sheep – from

Your immune system acts like a sheepdog. The sheepdog is known for defending their sheep against wolves and other creatures with an appetite for fresh lamb. Sheepdogs are also used to help herd the sheep, keeping these unruly animals in their place, and helping the shepherd lead them in the right way. These dogs have both aggressive & more gentle jobs. The immune system defends our body against harm, much like a sheepdog defends his sheep. But, the immune system also helps with maintenance of our body and “herding” good bacteria, among other things.  The spleen is part of the immune system – it helps clean bacteria from the blood, and cleans out old blood cells.  The immune system “herds” micro-organisms, for example, by controlling the population of good bacteria in your gut (bacteria is definitely not all bad – your body needs some), and keeping it where it belongs. One of the most important jobs of the immune system is to recognize which cells belong to your body, and which do not.  This amazing system of your body is hard at work all the time – not just when you are sick.

See the spleen in this diagram. From

The second question I asked was why our wonderfully designed immune system is so flawed and prone to do its job wrong for some people.  Disease and malfunctioning immune systems were definitely not part of the “very good” creation.  Just because a painting is worn and torn does not mean that the art was poorly done or that the painter doesn’t care about it.  In the same way, our immune systems are flawed today from genetic mutation, disease, cancer, etc. But, that doesn’t mean that it was poorly designed or that God no longer cares about the people He created. The reason why our bodies are flawed is that we live in a fallen world – a world where Adam and Eve, the first people, chose to rebel, bring sin into the world and as a consequence, death, disease, and thorns.  God doesn’t just leave us in our misery – He offers us a way out, and a promise of a new creation, new earth, and new bodies to all those who accept His invitation.

Then I heard a loud voice from the throne:
“Look! God’s dwelling is with humanity, and He will live with them.  They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God.
He will wipe away every tear from their eyes.  Death will no longer exist; grief, crying, and pain will exist no longer, because the previous things have passed away.”
Then the One seated on the throne said, “Look! I am making everything new” . . .
Revelation 21:3-5

©August 2017, Sara J. Mikkelson


Four Explosive C’s of Volcanoes

A volcanic crater

The dreariness of the cloudy, damp afternoon air was negated by my energy and excitement as I walked along the path, stopping every few steps to be enamored with the little things around me.  Suddenly, I saw something through the trees that made me gasp.  I kept on walking to get a better view at the end of the path.  A few feet in front of where I stood, the ground suddenly dropped into a giant, steep crater in the ground.  The view was beautiful and mind blowing.  I tried to imagine what it would have looked like with fresh, hot lava exploding out of this place, like it had when it was first formed.  Volcanoes can make many different amazing rocks and land formations.  Last week, I wrote about two types of lava flows, pahoehoe and A’a (read that article here).  But, a volcano is so much more than just flowing lava.  Today, let’s explore five formations made by volcanoes – and since they all start with the letter “C”, we will call them the 4 C’s of volcanoes.

I mentioned seeing a crater at the beginning of this article.  That’s our first “C”. When you think of a crater, features on the moon or made by meteorites  are probably the first things to come to mind.  Volcanic craters usually have a vent inside that lava and other volcanic debris comes out of.  Not all volcanic craters are at the top of the volcano –  some happen along the sides of the mountain as well.  The second “C”, is called a caldera, and is very similar to a crater.  A caldera is a crater that collapsed into its magma chamber, making it much larger.  Compared to a crater, a caldera usually has steeper sides and a flatter bottom.

Scoria – “cinder cones” or “scoria cones” are made of this type of bubbly lava rock. Public domain photo from WikiMedia Commons

Cones are another amazing feature of volcanoes.  They are made of volcanic debris piling up.  Spatter cones are made of a bunch of thin, wet clots of lava that splat when they hit the ground.  As the lava gets splattered up in one place, it creates a little pile, called a spatter cone.  There are other types of cones as well.  Ash cones are made of piles of volcanic ash, that have wide crater at the top.  Then there are cinder cones, which are made of a bubbly lava rock called scoria – this is the same type of lava rock you would find in gardens and landscaping.   These cinder cones also have a crater, but their piles and craters are more narrow than ash cones.

The final “C” of volcanoes is columns.  Sometimes cooling lava will crack in a special pattern of columns.  These columns look like hexagon (six-sided) shaped logs stacked side by side.  Although the most common shape is a hexagon, columns with anywhere between three and eight sides can be created in different situations.  They look like pillars all squished together when they stand upright, or stacked logs when they are sideways.  It all just depends on where the heat is coming from and where the lava can let off some steam.  We find these columns all throughout the rock record, including in the Grand Canyon.  Some people say that they have actually watched these columns forming as the lava cooled quickly.

Basalt Columns – basically the same as lava columns formed through cracking in a hexagon shape while cooling. Copyright free photo from

That’s one of the most incredible things about Hawaii – seeing geology in action.  Hawaii is a great reminder of how young our earth really is.  Quick, dramatic spurts of volcanic eruptions can dramatically change the landscape.  People will often point to the very same types of formations we see on Hawaii and claim that they took long periods of time to form or that they are millions of years old, like the rock columns on the bottom of the Grand Canyon.  Humans have witnessed many small-scale disasters on Hawaii and other volcanoes.  Some  have been able to take pictures or even videos of these things in action.  Those small-scale disasters are just leftovers after the global flood that would have included lots of volcanic activity.  While people may point to radioisotope rock dating as “proof” that other volcanic rock formations are very old, those dates are not very reliable.  Lava from Hawaii that people saw erupting in 1800 was tested for radioisotopes and it came back with a supposed minimum age of 160 million years.   We know that’s not the case for this lava, so why trust it to tell us dates of lava?

Volcanoes are also a solemn reminder of how quickly things can change.  Don’t take your life for granted.  Don’t take your future for granted.  Do you know what your life’s purpose is?  Do you know what will happen when you die? What if you lost everything tomorrow?  The Bible has the answers about geology, the global flood, and the age of the earth, but it also has the answers to all the most important questions of life.  And so much more than just answers for your mind, but also a life-long relationship for your soul.

©2017 Sara J. Mikkelson


  • Marshark, Stephen.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet. , Third Edition. 2008. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Hazlett, Richard. Hyndman, Donald.  Roadside Geology of Hawaii. 1996.  Sixth printing, April 2015.  Mountain Press Publishing Company.  Missoula, Montana.  USA
  • Wolfe, Edward W. Morris, Jean.  Geologic Map of the Island of Hawaii.  Paper made to accompany map I-2524-A.  U. S. Geological Survey.  Department of the Interior.
  • Walker, Tas. A Giant Cause: The Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland: colossal volcanic eruptions during Noah’s Flood. Creation Magazine. 27(2). March 2005. Pgs. 28–34.  Retrieved 5-11-17

Hawaii Rocks!

Thurston Lava Tubes entrance at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Photo copyright Creation Clues – David & Sara Mikkelson

Gentle jungle noises of birds and bugs faded as I walked into the large, damp cavern.   Green-tinted light reflecting off the dark rain forest canopy suddenly turned into the darkness of a cave with black walls, lit only with the occasional yellow glow of a man-made light.  The stillness of the cave was suddenly broken by the noise of a large group of tourists coming in behind me. I overheard someone ask their tour guide a question:

“How long did it take to make this cave?  Who made it?”


“Just hours to make it . . .  None of this is man-made.  All the lava tubes were made by lava flows” The tour guide replied.

Lava tubes are caves made by lava flows of a volcano.  They are made by a special type of lava flow. There’s a lot of variety in different types of lava and volcanic rock. Many factors come into play for the making of a lava rock, but the chemistry of the magma is the most important.  Magma and lava are the same thing – only we use the term “magma” when it’s underground and “lava” when it’s on the surface. As hot magma makes its way to the surface, it melts and mixes with other rock in the way.  Sometimes the surrounding rock melts into the magma, and other times it will leave partially melted edges in the rock or a chunk of that older rock will get carried away with the magma.

This melting and mixing of rock in between the magma and its exit will change the chemistry of the magma.  Geologists call this “magma evolution”.  Remember that the word “evolution” just means “change” – the magma changes have absolutely nothing to do with molecules turning into people.  On volcanoes like Mount St. Helens based on land, the magma has to go through a lot of continental rock, that contains a lot of quartz and other minerals rich in silica. This change in the magma makes for a very explosive eruption and generally relatively light colored lava rocks.

Mount Saint Helens erupting – public domain photo

Now take a look at Hawaii – since this group of volcanoes forms in the ocean, it goes through a different type of rock.  This oceanic rock is heavier than continental rock.  It doesn’t have much quartz or other silica, and instead has more iron and other metals in its chemistry.  Hawaiian volcanoes have a different style of eruption – these eruptions are still very dangerous, but the lava flows more like a flood, rather than exploding like Mount St. Helens.  Hawaiian volcanic rock is usually darker and heavier.  It really makes a lot of sense if you think about it.  Imagine hitting against glass – it may stand firm for a while, but with enough pressure it will shatter. However, if you did the same thing to a sheet of metal, it would bend and warp.  Volcanoes like Mount St. Helens explode because that rock and the magma underneath it has silica in it, like glass, while Hawaii has a lot of “bendable” metal in it (Read Birth of Hawaii to learn about the formation of this island chain).

Flowing pahoehoe lava
Public domain copyright free image from

Today, let’s explore two of the different types of rocks made by flowing lava in Hawaii.  They both have originally Hawaiian names – “Pahoehoe” (pronounced “pa-hoy-hoy”) and “’A’a” (pronounced like “Ah! Ah!”, as if you were expressing pain).  These two types of rocks actually have the same chemistry, but there are a few things that make them different. Pahoehoe is very smooth and runny.  It looks a little like a boiling pot of thick, creamy soup.  This is the stuff that really “oozes” and creates flowing rivers of lava.  Pahoehoe creates lava tubes when a flowing “stream” of lava is exposed to the air, which hardens the top and sides of the stream, creating a hard crust or skin.  Inside, this leaves a nice insulated tunnel that lava can keep flowing though and not be exposed to the air that would “freeze” it into solid rock.   Once the lava stops flowing, it sometimes leaves an empty lava tube.  Many of these are very large and look a lot like caves.

While pahoehoe is runny and smooth, ‘a’a is very jagged and bumpy.  If you walk on it, it can easy tear up shoes because the surface is so sharp, unlike smooth Pahohoe. The name “a’a” can remind you of a person walking in pain and crying “Ah! Ah!” as they walk along the sharp, jagged surface.  Just like bubbling soda contains carbon dioxide gas, lava also contains carbon dioxide and other gasses, like water vapor.  Pahoehoe has more gas and is hotter than ‘a’a.  While pahohoe flows, ‘a’a lava flows move in more of a “lumping”   and rolling motion.  Below are a couple of short YouTube videos showing real pahoehoe and ‘a’a lava in motion.

Inside the Thurston Lava Tubes

Lava can teach us a lot about stubbornness.  Do you ever struggle with stubbornness? I certainly do.  Lava is a good reminder to me that I want to be more like Pahoehoe of Hawaii and less like exploding lava rock of Mount St. Helens.  The more stiff and stubborn I am, the more I hurt those around me.  I can still be determined and make a difference, changing the landscape around me if I choose to do it more gently, like Hawaiian Pahoehoe.  So how can we change what kind of “lava” comes out of our hearts? The same way magma changes before it reaches the surface – by melting and absorbing the right things.  The Word and character of God are the best things we can absorb in our hearts, before our magma of thoughts and ideas ever reach the surface as actions and words. May you absorb more of Him and His Word every day and learn to be more like Pahohoe.

©2017 Sara J. Mikkelson

Read previous article about Hawaii: Hawaii – All Three Types of Science


  • Marshark, Stephen.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet. , Third Edition. 2008. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Hazlett, Richard. Hyndman, Donald.  Roadside Geology of Hawaii. 1996.  Sixth printing, April 2015.  Mountain Press Publishing Company.  Missoula, Montana.  USA
  • Video: “CSAV Hawaii: Pahoehoe on the Pali”. Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes.  University of Hawaii at Hilo.  Retrieved 5-3-17.
  • Video: “CSAV Hawaii: Volcanic Eruption with Aa”. Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes. University of Hawaii at Hilo. Retrieved 5-3-17.

Hawaii – All Three Types of Science

The author by the rolls of recent lava flows, spotted with a little foliage

The luscious green canopy of trees suddenly turned into a desert-like terrain.  Shiny black landscape glistened in the mid-day sunlight.  Rolling, lumpy black land stretched on for many miles. The light dotting of trees and small shacks soon disappeared.  It was hot and dusty along the road.  Looking around, on one side I could see the ocean stretching out on the horizon, as the land ended abruptly in cliffs.  On the other side, the black, hardened billows of hardened lava rolled down the side of the volcano, frozen in its tracks.  The road ahead promised more miles of this yet to come.  Walking along the hardened lava flows, what struck me the most was their young age.  Fifty years ago, these rocks I was standing on did not exist.

Hawaii is a truly incredible place where we can see the science of geology in action.  Here, we can vividly see all three main types of science in action.  These three types of science are 1) observational science, 2) historical science, and 3) predictions.  Let’s explore each of these on the Hawaiian Islands

1) Observational Science

This is a scientific rain gauge – used to make precise observations

This is basically using our senses to gather information about the world around us.  Any time we see, hear, touch, smell, or taste something using our five senses, we are making an observation.  Of course, our senses can be a bit limited (we can’t touch the stars and it’s hard to feel when it’s exactly 75.23° F outside) so we also use many tools to stretch our sensing ability.  We use telescopes, thermometers, radars, and countless other tools that help us observe things.  Observations are the hard facts of science.  These facts are repeatable and testable.  People have actually  seen flowing lava in Hawaii and taken pictures of it in action.  There is so much we can observe about the geology of Hawaii –  seismologists can measure earthquakes and see how they relate to eruptions. The Big Island is still an active volcano, and we can see the next volcano forming southwest of Hawaii, still underwater.  They call it Lo’ihi.

2) Historical Science

Lava in the process of hardening

This type of science isn’t as black & white as observational science.  While we can measure and observe volcanoes on the Big Island today, all the other Hawaiian islands are extinct volcanoes. We were not there to observe those volcanoes (or at least, not in the way we make scientific observations on the Big Island today).   This is where “educated guess” work comes in.  It’s where science and history start to blend, and each person’s world view, or basic beliefs, have a big influence.  To some extent, we can “guess” that some things happening on Hawaii today must have happened to the other islands, but we weren’t there to actually observe it and the farther back in history we go, the less reliable our guesses are. Most of the ages you will hear of Hawaii are way over estimated – there are many good reasons to be skeptical of the radioisotope dating methods used on Hawaiian rocks (read more about radioisotope dating here). To learn more about the history and formation of Hawaii, you can read our previous article Birth of Hawaii

3) Predictions

Similar to historical science, predictions try to “stretch” observations, only prediction tries to guess what will happen in the future based off what we observe happening in the present. The best part about predictions is that we can test them by making new observations when the time comes, like testing weather predictions.  For example, seismologists can predict how soon a new eruption will happen.  An example of long-term prediction is about the development or extinction of Hawaiian volcanoes. On the Big Island, newer lava rock has a slightly different chemistry than some of the previous lava flows.  Since that chemistry looks more similar to the chemistry of the rocks on the older volcanoes, geologists think that the Big Island volcanoes are working toward becoming extinct and getting replaced with an “upcoming” island, Lo’ihi. This is a prediction, or a “guess” we can make based on observations.  Like historical science, some prediction models are good and others are not.

The two active volcanoes of the Big Island (Mauna Loa & Kilauea) and the building, upcoming volcano, Lo’ihi, still under water

On Hawaii, we can practice all three types of science – we can observe things happening in the present and make educated guesses about the past and future.  Much as we would like to know everything about the past and future, we really are only given today.  Scientists are merely groups of people, and science is a lot like life – all you have is today.  Memories of the past are limited and we tend to forget things over time.   We can make guesses and assume things about the future, but we aren’t promised tomorrow and never know when life will include some major changes. If you have a relationship with the Lord of all, God will give you the grace you need for each day – worrying about the future or regretting the past is worse than “educated guess” historical science and predictions.  Worrying about scientific, political, or personal predictions and history brings to mind the words of the old hymn, Day By Day, reminding us that the Lord gives us whatever we need for each day

“ . . . as thy days, thy strength shall be in measure” ~ Day By Day

©2017, Sara J. Mikkelson


  • Hazlett, Richard. Hyndman, Donald.  Roadside Geology of Hawaii. 1996.  Sixth printing, April 2015.  Mountain Press Publishing Company.  Missoula, Montana.  USA
  • Hymn: “Day By Day”. Words: Karolina Wilhelmina Sandell-Berg, 1865; translated from Swedish to English by Andrew L. Skoog (1856-1934). Based off 2 Corinthians 4:16 and Deuteronomy 33:25.  Music: “Blott en Dag,” Oskar Ahnfelt, 1872

Birth of Hawaii

Flying into the Island of Hawaii – notice the volcano peak amid the clouds. Copyright Mikkelson 2017

“Look!  There’s the island!  Which volcano do you think that is?”  I wondered, noticing a mountain peak poking through the layer of clouds as I looked out of the small plane window.  We were in the Hawaiian islands, headed towards the Big Island of Hawaii, where we would be staying right next to an active volcano.  It was an amazing place.  One minute, we could be in a tropical rain forest, and suddenly it would turn into a giant deserted field of black lava rock.  Although some areas of the island have soft sandy beaches, others have dramatic sea cliffs where lava flows into the ocean.

When many people think of Hawaii, they think of a paradise, much like the Garden of Eden in the Bible.  But, unlike the Garden of Eden, these islands are the result of catastrophic forces and a dramatic, fiery origin.  Many aspects of Hawaii, like the lush plants, beautiful waterfalls, and incredible creatures point us back to the splendor and careful design of our Creator, God.  However, the Hawaiian islands are there today because of the global, catastrophic flood, sent as God’s righteous judgement for the sin of mankind.

Hawii sea cliffs at sunset. Copyright Mikkelson, 2017.

There is still a lot of mystery surrounding the geology of Hawaii.  Although we know that the global flood was catastrophic, the Bible gives less information about how exactly it happened, scientifically speaking.  This means that many of the details of the geology of the flood depend on which scientific model a person is using.  There are several scientific models that try to explain how exactly the flood happened.  Every good model will have it’s strong points and weak points.  The more information we gather by doing science, the more we can narrow out some of those models, testing which ones are most likely to be true.  Keeping that in mind, here’s what we can tell so far about how Hawaii formed.

Evidence shows that earth’s surface is made up of plates that move on top of the hot mantle. Lots of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, etc. form around the edges of these plates.  But, Hawaii is in the middle of a big plate, far from the plate boundaries that cause most volcanoes. Hawaii is actually part of a chain of seamounts that meet with the Emperor Sea Mounts and reach all the way to the Aleutian islands of Alaska.  The Big Island of Hawaii is the largest and is volcanically active, while the other islands are extinct volcanoes and get progressively smaller, the farther northwest on the chain of seamounts.  The current theory is that there is a plume of hot magma welling up in the mantle, creating a volcano on the outer plate of earth’s surface.  As that plate moves, the hot spot stays in place beneath it, creating a new volcano right next to the previous one.  The hot spot idea has a few problems and is being debated among scientists, but this model seems to be the best fit for Hawaii until we have more information.

This idea would also work well with the global flood. Although Earth’s plates move slowly today, they would have moved much faster in the past during, and for a short time after, the global flood.  The chain of seamounts over the Hawaiian hot spot probably started forming some time towards the end of the flood, when the plates were moving quickly.  The plates would have continued moving quickly for a little while after the flood, slowing down to the current speed of plate movement.  Hawaii must have formed a short while after the flood.

Hawaiian Volcano From – Copyright free image

Measuring from the seafloor to the peak Mauna Kea (the tallest volcano on the Big Island), Hawaii is 6.3 miles high, which is taller than Mount Everest, measuring from sea level to the peak.  It’s a powerful, but normally quite active volcano.  Although Hawaii is stunningly beautiful, it was formed as a fiery volcano from the aftermath of the flood – God’s judgement.  In places like Hawaii, we can see the grace of God stunningly illustrated. Hawaii was definitely not part of God’s “very good” original creation.  But, our gracious Creator took a messy situation – the flood of judgement – and turned it into something beautiful.  No matter how much you’ve messed up, remember that God’s grace can turn your life into a new and beautiful creation, just like Hawaii.

© 2017 Sara J. Mikkelson


Sticky Situations

Carefully and proudly, I opened the black case, lined with dark blue velvet, and gently removed a long, slender violin bow. Excitement, nervousness, and anticipation filled the room –  as a high schooler, I loved preforming in orchestra concerts. After tightening the knob, I gently ran the hairs of the bow along a shiny block of dark, golden-orange and brown rosin.  Flipping back a few years, at age six, after climbing a pine tree, I remember being frustrated with the gooey sap that wouldn’t come off my hands, no matter how many times I washed them.  Around college age, I remember examining pieces of amber for the first time, gazing intently at the little fossil bugs, plants, and other little things trapped inside.  What do these three things – fossil amber, sap, and violin rosin have in common and how are they different?

While they all ultimately come from trees, amber, sap, and rosin have several important differences. People often get these a little bit confused when it comes to how these things are related and different.  You may have heard that amber is fossilized sap.  This is a myth.  Both fine jewelry amber and rosin used on bows for violins are made from the resin of a tree, not a sap of the tree.  While rosin (used on violin bows) is refined and hardened resin, amber is fossilized resin, with a different chemistry behind it.  Sap and resin may seem similar at first – they are both golden sticky substances found in trees.   However, sap has a different chemistry and different job inside the tree than resin has.  Sap is usually more drippy and clear, while resin is more solid, tacky, and darker colored.  This dark, sticky resin is exposed when a tree is cut into.

Live Water Strider – Copyright free, Pixabay

So exactly how does fossil amber form, and why does it make such beautiful, perfectly preserved fossils? Although we weren’t there to see how amber formed, we have a few hints based off what we can clearly test on resin and amber today. First, we know that resin is exposed when a tree is cut into, or broken in certain ways. Second, we know that at least some of that resin had to be covered in water, because some water-dwelling creatures, including shells, water striders, and others, have been found fossilized in amber. Resin is also stickier and more likely to catch small creatures and plant pieces when it is wet.  But, resin will not turn into amber when it’s wet, and must also be covered in sediments and pressurized.

Wet resin explains why we find so many different fossil creatures and plants preserved in amber, and it also makes sense with the global flood and possibly other catastrophes that happened while Earth was recovering from the flood.  During the flood, trees would have been ripped up and torn apart, exposing the sticky, wet resin.  Some of the smashed tree parts would have floated, and their wet resin would have easily caught bugs and other small pieces of debris.  As the waves moved, some of the resin could have dropped and been covered with new layers of mud, causing the resin to turn into amber.

All of this must be done very quickly so that that tiny creatures and plants would have been preserved in the perfect detail we see in amber. Mosquitoes, small wasps, beetles, slender-legged water striders, frogs, lizards, larvae, termites, flowers, leaves, and countless other little treasures have been found in amber, as if frozen in their tracks.  Almost every little detail of their bodies are perfectly preserved. Looking at amber for the first time up close, I was amazed at how real and alive these things looked.  Recently, a tick in amber was discovered with blood inside of it.  Researchers concluded that the blood probably belonged to a monkey that the tick was feeding on.  Things like this shouldn’t last millions of years, or be beautifully preserved like they are.  Amber presents good evidence for a rapid, catastrophic burial during a world wide flood and a young earth.  It also reminds us of how quickly life can come to a sudden halt, like it did for these creatures, frozen in their tracks.  We aren’t promised tomorrow – be sure to live each day with that in mind.

©2017 Sara J. Mikkelson


Media Credit:

Featured image compiled by David Mikkelson from:

  • “Amber2” – ant in amber, © Anders L. Damgaard: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license
  • Amber © Sara J. Mikkelson, 2016

Other images: (copyright free) and ©Sara J. Mikkelson


Four Arguments Against Living Fossils Answered

I scoured the beautiful, thick glossy pages with a skeptical eye.  Internally, questions and objections were popping up all over my mind as I fleshed out the ideas presented. The book was “Living Fossils”, by Dr. Carl Werner.  It’s a popular young earth creation science book, and I definitely believe in a Biblical young earth.  However, since my geology classes in a secular college, I’ve learned how to borrow the mindset of an evolutionist or old earth believer enough to test the weaknesses and strengths of different young earth models or ideas.  The common young earth view on living fossils is that creatures found both in the fossil record and alive today are a problem for evolution because they remain unchanged.  Today, let’s break down four common arguments against this view of living fossils (more on living fossils here)

1. Not the exact same genus & species name

Many of the fossil creatures mentioned in Dr. Werner’s book are classified in a different genus and/or species name than they have today.  Some of the fossils don’t have a species name at all.  However, keep in mind that naming a fossil can be tricky.  The fossil versions can be squished, look different with various angles, or have missing parts.  Soft body parts, color, behavior, and other details that help us identify a creature usually don’t get preserved in fossils.  However, even if we could tell that these creatures were from a different genus and species than the living versions, the point remains that they appear very similar and unchanged, despite vast amounts of supposed evolution.

2. Limited information available

Good scientists will readily admit that we don’t know everything about the fossil record and evolution.  If a fossil creature, thought to be long extinct, suddenly appears alive today, some people say it just means we have more information now and need to change their evolutionary dates. The same thing would be thought when living creatures are found deeper inside the fossil record than evolutionary ideas predict. But, this kind of thinking side-steps the problem that these creatures remain unchanged over supposed millions of years of transition and dramatic change in other creatures.  Of course, this leads us right into the next objection to living fossils:

3. Evolution doesn’t require a creature to change

Could a creature stay the same, if it just had the right conditions?   Perhaps. But, “Change over time” is the main point behind the idea of evolution. The theory of evolution is constantly changing.  Many scientists think this is good and scientific.  But, if a theory constantly needs to be adjusted because it failed after being tested against observable data, keeping an open mind to considering different theories might be wise. The use of true scientific method should have eliminated evolutionary theory long ago because it fails testing. It’s interesting to note that we find many examples of living fossils (creatures staying the same) but even supposed transitional forms (creatures evolving) are quite rare in the fossil record.

4. Most living fossils in Dr. Werner’s book are Mesozoic (dinosaur era)

According to the evolutionary model, the “dinosaur era” or Mesozoic rock unit, is in the middle of the fossil record (not counting the Precambrian rock units – more about rock units here).  Theoretically, there would have been plenty of time for the evolution of many complex, modern-looking creatures.  At the same time, the Mesozoic isn’t too far from modern times for some creatures to survive, according to the evolutionary timeline. Although Dr. Werner focused on dinosaur-era fossils, there are numerous examples of much “older” living fossils, found deeper in the fossil record.  Numerous living fossils can be found in Carboniferous and even Cambrian rock layers.

Are living fossils a good argument against evolution?  There are a number of stronger arguments for young earth creation I would use first, like soft tissue in fossils and helium in granite. But, living fossils do present a good question for evolution and a challenge to the way people think about the fossil record.  We tend to think that fossil creatures lived in a “pre-historic” world that was very strange and different from our own.  However, Dinosaurs and many other fossil creatures lived with things that looked a lot like our modern creatures. Living fossils are a beautiful illustration of the faithfulness and mercy of our Creator, God. He has preserved so many amazingly designed creatures.  This is not preservation through heartless favor of evolution, but by God’s mercy through His righteous judgment.  Just as He preserves those creatures, He can preserve you, too.

©2017 Sara J. Mikkelson

Read previous Articles in this Series:


  • Werner, Dr. Carl. Living Fossils. Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Vol. 2. 2008. Audio Visual Consultants, Inc. New Leaf Press. Green Forest, Arkansas, USA.

Butterflies – Creation Clues for Kids Vol 5 No 3

Flutter By

Do you ever like to catch bugs, butterflies, or other little creatures outside? Sometimes, you can catch bugs and watch them live in a jar for a while.  Some of the most exciting bugs I remember chasing around the back yard were butterflies.  There was something mysterious and extra special about these thin, colorful bugs that never went where I wanted them to go.  Chasing butterflies always made me laugh.  Just when I thought I nearly caught one, the butterfly would suddenly turn or switch directions, fluttering above my head. Have you ever tried to chase a butterfly?


Butterflies have long, thin bodies, made of three sections, just like other insects. They have compound bug eyes made up of many different lenses. Our eyes each have a single lens, but butterflies and other bugs have thousands of tiny lenses clustered together in each eye.  This gives a creature special abilities to see around itself and get a better picture of the outside world.   Butterflies feed on flower nectar by using a proboscis (say it: “praw-boss-cuss”)– a long, super thin touge-like part of their body that can curl and suck up nectar, almost like a straw.  Of course, wings are usually the most beautiful part of a butterfly (and give it the ability to fly).  Wings come in many different colors, patterns, shapes, and sizes.

Worm Work

Have you ever read the short picture book, “The Very Hungry Caterpillar”?    Just like the little caterpillar in this book eats and eats until it is ready to be transformed into a butterfly, real caterpillars have a very healthy appetite.  They don’t eat junk-food, like the caterpillar in the book, but are very picky eaters.  Caterpillars from different types of butterflies only eat leaves from their specific types of plants. Caterpillars of Monarch butterflies only eat milkweed plants.  A mother butterfly lays her caterpillar eggs on just the right type of leaf.  After the egg hatches, the caterpillar eats its egg shell and the leaf the egg was on and continues eating and growing.  Caterpillars must shed their outer skin several times because they outgrow their outer skeletons (like a snake sheds).  The last time it’s ready to shed, the caterpillar does something very different . . .

After hatching, some caterpillars grow more than 3,000 times their size. This would be like a six-pound newborn human baby eating enough to weigh more than two African elephants together!


The last time a caterpillar sheds, it doesn’t have a new skeleton underneath, but develops a chrysalis instead. While hanging upside-down on a nice branch, the caterpillar creates this nearly cone-shaped wrapping.  The outside of a chysalis has a special pattern of dots.  On the outside of its bright green chrysalis, a monarch butterfly has twenty-four gold specks around its heart, and twelve more gold specks marking other important body parts. Many critical body parts that the creature could not live without (including the stomach) are completely dissolved and re-made during this process of metamorphosis (pronounced “met-a-more-fa-sis”).  Whole body systems are remodeled, changing the way the creature eats, moves, senses, and more.

 A butterfly transforms in a chrysalis (say it: “Kris-a-lis”) that hangs from something, while a moth uses a cocoon that hides instead of hangs. You can call either one a “pupa” (say it: “Pew-puh”) while it is transforming

Totally New Life

After going through metamorphosis, the fluttering butterfly is ready for a totally different life than it used to have as a caterpillar.  Those short, stubby caterpillar legs turn into very long and thin butterfly legs.  Its eyes transform into compound eyes, ready to help the butterfly see flowers.  It uses its new proboscis to suck nectar from those flowers and get a nice meal. Instead of crawling on the ground and on leaves, the butterfly now has the amazing ability to fly.  A transformation like this never could have come about by accidental evolution. Step by step – every part of the process of butterfly transformation had to be in place from the start.

Sometimes, the bright colors of butterfly wings can make them look poisonous to other creatures who might want to eat them

Big Blue


Blue Morpho. Photo copyright Sara J. Bruegel, 2016

Colors like red, brown, orange, and some blacks in butterfly wings come from the scales actually being naturally “dyed”.  Black and orange Monarch butterflies have these “dyed” scales. Colors like blue, green, white, and sometimes black are often iridescent. The color can look different as the butterfly moves its wings. They almost look like they’re glowing, like a computer screen.  These colors are not made by the scales being dyed, but by the microscopic designs inside the scales that reflect and bend light.  The way you can see these colors is a lot like the way you can see  the colors of a rainbow through distant rain. Blue Morpho (say it: “more-fow”) butterflies have this special iridescent blue color on their wings, but only on the top of their wings.  The bottom sides of their wings are brown and have shapes that help it to blend in with tree branches.


Atlas Moth

At first, moths look very similar to butterflies.  The bodies of a moth are usually thicker and more “hairy” than butterflies.  When moths rest, their wings are usually open or flat.  Butterflies rest with their wings folded closed or slowly opening and closing.  A moth’s antennae are usually shorter and hairier than those of a butterfly.   While you might be tempted to think of moths as the “ugly” version of a butterfly, some moths are actually quite colorful.  The Atlas Moth is very large and has some beautiful patterns on its wings

Monarch Relay


Lifeless monarch amid the flowers. Photo copyright Sara J. Bruegel, October 2015

Have you ever tried a relay race? You run for a lap, then you stop and a friend continues running for you, then someone else takes over for them. Monarch butterflies have special orange and black patterns on their wings. This type of butterfly is an amazing traveler and survivor with a special family adventure story.  Grandma monarch eggs usually hatch near Texas in the spring.  They fly north a few states, following the spring warmth, then lay their eggs, and die.  Mamma monarchs hatch from those eggs, enjoy their lives, and keep flying north until they find their northern home around the border between the United States and Canada where they lay their eggs.  Baby Monarchs hatch from those eggs, and notice that it’s time to go south for the winter, so they begin the long journey, flying all the way to Mexico. While both Grandma and Mamma Monarch lived for only a few weeks and traveled a short distance, Baby Monarch lives for eight to nine months and flies about three thousand miles south. In a forest of special trees in the mountains of Mexico, monarch butterflies gather by the millions all clumping together on the trees to keep warm.  Some don’t survive the winter, but the ones that do fly back to Texas in the spring, lay their eggs, and die.  (Learn more about this incredible journey of the monarch by clicking here)

“Monarch” means royal.  While changing from a caterpillar to a butterfly, they forma a special “crown” of golden dots on the outside of the chrysalis around the area where their head is developing


Looking at the lives of butterflies, and especially the traveling Monarch, we can see God’s extra special care for the creatures He made.  He makes them beautiful and gives them special abilities.  He perfectly planned their amazing transformation from caterpillars to butterflies.  But, most butterflies only live for a few weeks.  If our Creator put so much care and art into these butterflies, how much more does He care about you and carefully craft all the details of your life?  He made you “in His image” – so much more special than any kind of animal.  (To learn more about butterflies, click here)


Printable Coloring Page – Click Here

For Your Information . . .

CCK is written by Sara J. Bruegel.  Many thanks to Richard Gunther for the fun cartoon & coloring page.  If you have a question or comment about God’s creation that you would like to share, please write to Sara at: Also, you can visit to learn more about our Creator’s amazing world of science, read a new article every week or read & print past issues of CCK.  Please share CCK with your friends & family!

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